The A(2A) adenosine receptor is a protein belonging to a family of four GPCR adenosine receptors. It is involved in the regulation of several pathophysiological conditions in both the central nervous system and periphery. In the brain, its localization at pre- and postsynaptic level in striatum, cortex, hippocampus and its effects on glutamate release, microglia and astrocyte activation account for a crucial role in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). This ailment is considered the main form of dementia and is expected to exponentially increase in coming years. The pathological tracts of AD include amyloid peptide-beta extracellular accumulation and tau hyperphosphorylation, causing neuronal cell death, cognitive deficit, and memory loss. Interestingly, in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that A(2A) adenosine receptor antagonists may counteract each of these clinical signs, representing an important new strategy to fight a disease for which unfortunately only symptomatic drugs are available. This review offers a brief overview of the biological effects mediated by A(2A) adenosine receptors in AD animal and human studies and reports the state of the art of A(2A) adenosine receptor antagonists currently in clinical trials. As an original approach, it focuses on the crucial role of pharmacokinetics and ability to pass the blood-brain barrier in the discovery of new agents for treating CNS disorders. Considering that A(2A) receptor antagonist istradefylline is already commercially available for Parkinson's disease treatment, if the proof of concept of these ligands in AD is confirmed and reinforced, it will be easier to offer a new hope for AD patients.

Pathophysiological Role and Medicinal Chemistry of A2A Adenosine Receptor Antagonists in Alzheimer's Disease

Merighi, Stefania
Primo
;
Borea, Pier Andrea
Secondo
;
Varani, Katia;Vincenzi, Fabrizio;Travagli, Alessia;Nigro, Manuela;Pasquini, Silvia;Gessi, Stefania
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

The A(2A) adenosine receptor is a protein belonging to a family of four GPCR adenosine receptors. It is involved in the regulation of several pathophysiological conditions in both the central nervous system and periphery. In the brain, its localization at pre- and postsynaptic level in striatum, cortex, hippocampus and its effects on glutamate release, microglia and astrocyte activation account for a crucial role in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). This ailment is considered the main form of dementia and is expected to exponentially increase in coming years. The pathological tracts of AD include amyloid peptide-beta extracellular accumulation and tau hyperphosphorylation, causing neuronal cell death, cognitive deficit, and memory loss. Interestingly, in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that A(2A) adenosine receptor antagonists may counteract each of these clinical signs, representing an important new strategy to fight a disease for which unfortunately only symptomatic drugs are available. This review offers a brief overview of the biological effects mediated by A(2A) adenosine receptors in AD animal and human studies and reports the state of the art of A(2A) adenosine receptor antagonists currently in clinical trials. As an original approach, it focuses on the crucial role of pharmacokinetics and ability to pass the blood-brain barrier in the discovery of new agents for treating CNS disorders. Considering that A(2A) receptor antagonist istradefylline is already commercially available for Parkinson's disease treatment, if the proof of concept of these ligands in AD is confirmed and reinforced, it will be easier to offer a new hope for AD patients.
2022
Merighi, Stefania; Borea, Pier Andrea; Varani, Katia; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Travagli, Alessia; Nigro, Manuela; Pasquini, Silvia; Suresh, R Rama; Kim, Sung Won; Volkow, Nora D; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Gessi, Stefania
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2497775
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