Background: Sex differences are underappreciated in the current understanding of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in association with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A hallmark of CKD is vascular aging that is characterised, amongst others, by; systemic inflammation, microbiota disbalance, oxidative stress, and vascular calcification—features linked to atherosclerosis/arteriosclerosis development. Thus, it is the necessary to introduce novel biomarkers related to athero-/arteriosclerotic damage for better assessment of vascular ageing in patients CKD. However, little is known about the relationship between uraemia and novel CVD biomarkers, such as growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), cartilage glycoprotein-39 (YKL-40) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Therefore, we hypothesise that there are sex-specific relationships between GDF-15, YKL-40, MMP-9 levels in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients in relation to gut microbiota, vascular calcification, inflammation, comorbidities, and all-cause mortality. Methods: ESKD patients, males (n = 151) and females (n = 79), not receiving renal replacement therapy were selected from two ongoing prospective ESKD cohorts. GDF-15, YKL-40 and MMP9 were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Biomarker levels were analysed in the context of gut microbiota-derived trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), vascular calcification, inflammatory response, oxidative stress, comorbidities, and all-cause mortality. Results: Increased GDF-15 correlated with higher TMAO in females only, and with higher coronary artery calcification and IL-6. In females, diabetes was associated with elevated GDF-15 and MMP-9, whilst males with diabetes only had elevated GDF-15. No associations were found between biomarkers and CVD comorbidity. Deceased males and females had higher GDF-15 concentrations (p = 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively), meanwhile only YKL-40 was increased in deceased males (p = 0.02). Conclusions: In conclusion, in males GDF-15 and YKL-40 were related to vascular calcification, inflammation, and oxidative stress, whilst in females GDF-15 was related to TMAO. Increased levels of YKL-40 and GDF-15 in males, and only GDF-15 in females, were associated with all-cause mortality. Our findings suggest that sex-specific associations of novel CVD biomarkers have a potential to affect development of cardiovascular complications in patients with ESKD.

Role of GDF-15, YKL-40 and MMP 9 in patients with end-stage kidney disease: focus on sex-specific associations with vascular outcomes and all-cause mortality

Raparelli V.
Ultimo
;
2021

Abstract

Background: Sex differences are underappreciated in the current understanding of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in association with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A hallmark of CKD is vascular aging that is characterised, amongst others, by; systemic inflammation, microbiota disbalance, oxidative stress, and vascular calcification—features linked to atherosclerosis/arteriosclerosis development. Thus, it is the necessary to introduce novel biomarkers related to athero-/arteriosclerotic damage for better assessment of vascular ageing in patients CKD. However, little is known about the relationship between uraemia and novel CVD biomarkers, such as growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), cartilage glycoprotein-39 (YKL-40) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Therefore, we hypothesise that there are sex-specific relationships between GDF-15, YKL-40, MMP-9 levels in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients in relation to gut microbiota, vascular calcification, inflammation, comorbidities, and all-cause mortality. Methods: ESKD patients, males (n = 151) and females (n = 79), not receiving renal replacement therapy were selected from two ongoing prospective ESKD cohorts. GDF-15, YKL-40 and MMP9 were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Biomarker levels were analysed in the context of gut microbiota-derived trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), vascular calcification, inflammatory response, oxidative stress, comorbidities, and all-cause mortality. Results: Increased GDF-15 correlated with higher TMAO in females only, and with higher coronary artery calcification and IL-6. In females, diabetes was associated with elevated GDF-15 and MMP-9, whilst males with diabetes only had elevated GDF-15. No associations were found between biomarkers and CVD comorbidity. Deceased males and females had higher GDF-15 concentrations (p = 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively), meanwhile only YKL-40 was increased in deceased males (p = 0.02). Conclusions: In conclusion, in males GDF-15 and YKL-40 were related to vascular calcification, inflammation, and oxidative stress, whilst in females GDF-15 was related to TMAO. Increased levels of YKL-40 and GDF-15 in males, and only GDF-15 in females, were associated with all-cause mortality. Our findings suggest that sex-specific associations of novel CVD biomarkers have a potential to affect development of cardiovascular complications in patients with ESKD.
2021
Laucyte-Cibulskiene, A.; Ward, L. J.; Ebert, T.; Tosti, G.; Tucci, C.; Hernandez, L.; Kautzky-Willer, A.; Herrero, M. -T.; Norris, C. M.; Pilote, L.; ...espandi
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2473743
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