Background: Patients suffering from non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) frequently report extra- intestinal symptoms, such as anemia. Aims: We investigated the prevalence and associated clinical features of anemia in NCWS patients. Methods: Data from 244 NCWS patients, diagnosed by double-blind placebo-controlled wheat challenge, were retrospectively reviewed and compared with 2 control groups (celiac disease (CD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)). Furthermore, 31 NCWS anemic patients were prospectively re-evaluated after at least 12 months on the “strict” wheat-free diet (WFD). Results: Anemia prevalence in NCWS patients was 34.8% (mean hemoglobin 10.4 ± 1.4 g/dl), significantly higher than in IBS (17.4%, P = 0.03), but not in CD ones. The NCWS group, on the whole, had sideropenic- like features with low serum iron and altered iron deposits. Both anemia prevalence and sideropenic-like features were more evident in CD than in NCWS patients, whereas only a few IBS subjects showed such features. Significant differences were found in anemic vs non-anemic NCWS patients as regards to female sex, diagnostic delay, poly/hypermenorrhea, iron deficiency, and higher TSH values. A long-term WFD significantly reduced anemia and improved iron metabolism. Conclusion: Microcytic/hypochromic anemia and altered iron metabolism occur frequently in NCWS and can be treated with a long-term strict WFD. NCWS should be included in differential diagnosis of anemic patients with “functional gastrointestinal troubles”

Anemia in non-celiac wheat sensitivity: Prevalence and associated clinical and laboratory features

Caio G.;De Giorgio R.
Penultimo
;
2023

Abstract

Background: Patients suffering from non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) frequently report extra- intestinal symptoms, such as anemia. Aims: We investigated the prevalence and associated clinical features of anemia in NCWS patients. Methods: Data from 244 NCWS patients, diagnosed by double-blind placebo-controlled wheat challenge, were retrospectively reviewed and compared with 2 control groups (celiac disease (CD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)). Furthermore, 31 NCWS anemic patients were prospectively re-evaluated after at least 12 months on the “strict” wheat-free diet (WFD). Results: Anemia prevalence in NCWS patients was 34.8% (mean hemoglobin 10.4 ± 1.4 g/dl), significantly higher than in IBS (17.4%, P = 0.03), but not in CD ones. The NCWS group, on the whole, had sideropenic- like features with low serum iron and altered iron deposits. Both anemia prevalence and sideropenic-like features were more evident in CD than in NCWS patients, whereas only a few IBS subjects showed such features. Significant differences were found in anemic vs non-anemic NCWS patients as regards to female sex, diagnostic delay, poly/hypermenorrhea, iron deficiency, and higher TSH values. A long-term WFD significantly reduced anemia and improved iron metabolism. Conclusion: Microcytic/hypochromic anemia and altered iron metabolism occur frequently in NCWS and can be treated with a long-term strict WFD. NCWS should be included in differential diagnosis of anemic patients with “functional gastrointestinal troubles”
2023
Mansueto, P.; Seidita, A.; Soresi, M.; Giuliano, A.; Riccio, G.; Volta, U.; Caio, G.; La Blasca, F.; Disclafani, R.; De Giorgio, R.; Carroccio, A.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2529428
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