Background: Dizziness and vertigo are among the most prevalent complaints in the elderly and have a major negative influence on (i) the perception of the quality of life; and (ii) the risk of falling. Due to population aging, particularly in wealthy nations, vertigo represents a growing issue and a serious public health concern. In order to approach the patient correctly and to offer the best treatment options, it is mandatory to identify vertigo’s underlying causes. The aim of this paper was to identify the different etiologies of vertigo and possibly their frequency in the elderly population, by reviewing the scientific literature of the last decade (2012–2022). Methods: A systematic review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines, searching the Medline database from January 2012 through to December 2022. The search identified 1025 candidate papers, but after the application of specific selection criteria, only five were considered for further analysis. Results: A total of 2148 elderly patients (60–90 y old) presenting with vertigo were reported in the selected papers. A total of 3404 conditions were identified as the cause of vertiginous symptoms, (some patients presented multiple etiologies). All major diagnoses were categorized into different subgroups: the most common origin of vertigo was represented by audio-vestibular disorders (28.4%), followed by cardiovascular (20.4%) and neurological diseases (15.1%). Furthermore, 9.1% of patients were diagnosed with psychiatric conditions, whilst ophthalmologic and musculoskeletal disorders accounted for 7.5% and 6.3% of the cases respectively. Medication adverse effects and metabolic-related diseases were also considered among the causes. For 3.4% of cases the etiology remains unclear. Conclusions: Audio-vestibular disorders represent the most frequent cause of vertigo in the elderly. The etiologies affecting the vertigo patient must be defined in order to identify potential life-threatening conditions, such as cardiovascular and neurological disorders, which according to the data of this review constitute the second and third common causes of vertigo. A multidisciplinary strategy, involving different specialists (such as ENTs, Neurologists, Cardiologists, Geriatricians) is recommended for the correct assessment of these disorders.

Vertigo in the Elderly: A Systematic Literature Review

Virginia Fancello
Primo
;
Stavros Hatzopoulos;Giuseppe Santopietro;Chiara Bianchini;Andrea Ciorba
Ultimo
2023

Abstract

Background: Dizziness and vertigo are among the most prevalent complaints in the elderly and have a major negative influence on (i) the perception of the quality of life; and (ii) the risk of falling. Due to population aging, particularly in wealthy nations, vertigo represents a growing issue and a serious public health concern. In order to approach the patient correctly and to offer the best treatment options, it is mandatory to identify vertigo’s underlying causes. The aim of this paper was to identify the different etiologies of vertigo and possibly their frequency in the elderly population, by reviewing the scientific literature of the last decade (2012–2022). Methods: A systematic review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines, searching the Medline database from January 2012 through to December 2022. The search identified 1025 candidate papers, but after the application of specific selection criteria, only five were considered for further analysis. Results: A total of 2148 elderly patients (60–90 y old) presenting with vertigo were reported in the selected papers. A total of 3404 conditions were identified as the cause of vertiginous symptoms, (some patients presented multiple etiologies). All major diagnoses were categorized into different subgroups: the most common origin of vertigo was represented by audio-vestibular disorders (28.4%), followed by cardiovascular (20.4%) and neurological diseases (15.1%). Furthermore, 9.1% of patients were diagnosed with psychiatric conditions, whilst ophthalmologic and musculoskeletal disorders accounted for 7.5% and 6.3% of the cases respectively. Medication adverse effects and metabolic-related diseases were also considered among the causes. For 3.4% of cases the etiology remains unclear. Conclusions: Audio-vestibular disorders represent the most frequent cause of vertigo in the elderly. The etiologies affecting the vertigo patient must be defined in order to identify potential life-threatening conditions, such as cardiovascular and neurological disorders, which according to the data of this review constitute the second and third common causes of vertigo. A multidisciplinary strategy, involving different specialists (such as ENTs, Neurologists, Cardiologists, Geriatricians) is recommended for the correct assessment of these disorders.
2023
Fancello, Virginia; Hatzopoulos, Stavros; Santopietro, Giuseppe; Fancello, Giuseppe; Palma, Silvia; Henryk Skarżyński, Piotr; Bianchini, Chiara; Ciorba, Andrea
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2508790
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