The viscosity of water induces a vorticity near the free surface boundary. The resulting rotational component of the fluid velocity vector greatly complicates the water wave system. Several approaches to close this system have been proposed. Our analysis compares three common sets of model equations. The first set has a rotational kinematic boundary condition at the surface. In the second set, a gauge choice for the velocity vector is made that cancels the rotational contribution in the kinematic boundary condition, at the cost of rotational velocity in the bulk and a rotational pressure. The third set circumvents the problem by introducing two domains: the irrotational bulk and the vortical boundary layer. This comparison puts forward the link between rotational pressure on the surface and vorticity in the boundary layer, addresses the existence of nonlinear vorticity terms, and shows where approximations have been used in the models. Furthermore, we examine the conservation of mass for the three systems, and how this can be compared to the irrotational case. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

### Reconciling different formulations of viscous water waves and their mass conservation

#### Abstract

The viscosity of water induces a vorticity near the free surface boundary. The resulting rotational component of the fluid velocity vector greatly complicates the water wave system. Several approaches to close this system have been proposed. Our analysis compares three common sets of model equations. The first set has a rotational kinematic boundary condition at the surface. In the second set, a gauge choice for the velocity vector is made that cancels the rotational contribution in the kinematic boundary condition, at the cost of rotational velocity in the bulk and a rotational pressure. The third set circumvents the problem by introducing two domains: the irrotational bulk and the vortical boundary layer. This comparison puts forward the link between rotational pressure on the surface and vorticity in the boundary layer, addresses the existence of nonlinear vorticity terms, and shows where approximations have been used in the models. Furthermore, we examine the conservation of mass for the three systems, and how this can be compared to the irrotational case. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
##### Scheda breve Scheda completa Scheda completa (DC)
2020
Eeltink, D.; Armaroli, A.; Brunetti, M.; Kasparian, J.
File in questo prodotto:
File
1-s2.0-S0165212519303877-main.pdf

solo gestori archivio

Descrizione: versione editoriale
Licenza: NON PUBBLICO - Accesso privato/ristretto
Dimensione 508.16 kB
Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: `https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2506511`