Atherosclerosis (AS), the main cause of many cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), is a progressive inflammatory disease characterized by the accumulation of lipids, fibrous elements, and calcification in the innermost layers of arteries. The result is the thickening and clogging of these vessel walls. Several cell types are directly involved in the pathological progression of AS. Among them, platelets represent the link between AS, inflammation, and thrombosis. Indeed, besides their pivotal role in hemostasis and thrombosis, platelets are key mediators of inflammation at injury sites, where they act by regulating the function of other blood and vascular cell types, including endothelial cells (ECs), leukocytes, and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In recent years, increasing evidence has pointed to a central role of platelet-derived extracellular vesicles (P-EVs) in the modulation of AS pathogenesis. However, while the role of platelet-derived microparticles (P-MPs) has been significantly investigated in recent years, the same cannot be said for platelet-derived exosomes (P-EXOs). For this reason, this reviews aims at summarizing the isolation methods and biological characteristics of P-EXOs, and at discussing their involvement in intercellular communication in the pathogenesis of AS. Evidence showing how P-EXOs and their cargo can be used as biomarkers for AS is also presented in this review.

Platelet-Derived Exosomes in Atherosclerosis

Ferroni, Letizia
Secondo
;
Leo, Sara;Zavan, Barbara
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

Atherosclerosis (AS), the main cause of many cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), is a progressive inflammatory disease characterized by the accumulation of lipids, fibrous elements, and calcification in the innermost layers of arteries. The result is the thickening and clogging of these vessel walls. Several cell types are directly involved in the pathological progression of AS. Among them, platelets represent the link between AS, inflammation, and thrombosis. Indeed, besides their pivotal role in hemostasis and thrombosis, platelets are key mediators of inflammation at injury sites, where they act by regulating the function of other blood and vascular cell types, including endothelial cells (ECs), leukocytes, and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In recent years, increasing evidence has pointed to a central role of platelet-derived extracellular vesicles (P-EVs) in the modulation of AS pathogenesis. However, while the role of platelet-derived microparticles (P-MPs) has been significantly investigated in recent years, the same cannot be said for platelet-derived exosomes (P-EXOs). For this reason, this reviews aims at summarizing the isolation methods and biological characteristics of P-EXOs, and at discussing their involvement in intercellular communication in the pathogenesis of AS. Evidence showing how P-EXOs and their cargo can be used as biomarkers for AS is also presented in this review.
2022
Gardin, Chiara; Ferroni, Letizia; Leo, Sara; Tremoli, Elena; Zavan, Barbara
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2501870
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