BACKGROUND: The relative contribution of amyloid and fibrosis to extracellular volume expansion in cardiac amyloidosis (CA) has never been defined. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included all patients diagnosed with amyloid light-chain (AL) or transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis at a tertiary referral center between 2014 to 2020 and undergoing a left ventricular endomyocardial biopsy. Patients (n=37) were more often men (92%), with a median age of 72 years (interquartile range, 68–81). Lambda-positive AL was found in 14 of 19 AL cases (38%) and kappa-positive AL in 5 of 19 (14%), while transthyretin was detected in the other 18 cases (48%). Amyloid deposits accounted for 15% of tissue sample area (10%–30%), without significant differences between AL and transthyretin amyloidosis. All patients displayed myocardial fibrosis, with a median extent of 15% of tissue samples (10%–23%; range, 5%–60%), in the absence of spatial overlap with amyloid deposits. Interstitial fibrosis was often associated with mild and focal subendocardial fibrosis. The extent of fibrosis or the combination of amyloidosis and fibrosis did not differ significantly between transthyretin amyloidosis and AL subgroups. In 20 patients with myocardial T1 mapping at cardiac magnetic resonance, the combined amyloid and fibrosis extent displayed a modest correlation with extracellular volume (r=0.661, P=0.001). The combined amyloid and fibrosis extent correlated with high-sensitivity troponin T (P=0.035) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (P=0.002) serum levels. CONCLUSIONS: Extracellular spaces in cardiac amyloidosis are enlarged to a similar extent by amyloid deposits and fibrotic tissue. Their combination can better explain the increased extracellular volume at cardiac magnetic resonance and circulating biomarkers than amyloid extent alone.

Amyloid deposits and fibrosis on left ventricular endomyocardial biopsy correlate with extracellular volume in cardiac amyloidosis

Rapezzi C.;
2021

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The relative contribution of amyloid and fibrosis to extracellular volume expansion in cardiac amyloidosis (CA) has never been defined. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included all patients diagnosed with amyloid light-chain (AL) or transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis at a tertiary referral center between 2014 to 2020 and undergoing a left ventricular endomyocardial biopsy. Patients (n=37) were more often men (92%), with a median age of 72 years (interquartile range, 68–81). Lambda-positive AL was found in 14 of 19 AL cases (38%) and kappa-positive AL in 5 of 19 (14%), while transthyretin was detected in the other 18 cases (48%). Amyloid deposits accounted for 15% of tissue sample area (10%–30%), without significant differences between AL and transthyretin amyloidosis. All patients displayed myocardial fibrosis, with a median extent of 15% of tissue samples (10%–23%; range, 5%–60%), in the absence of spatial overlap with amyloid deposits. Interstitial fibrosis was often associated with mild and focal subendocardial fibrosis. The extent of fibrosis or the combination of amyloidosis and fibrosis did not differ significantly between transthyretin amyloidosis and AL subgroups. In 20 patients with myocardial T1 mapping at cardiac magnetic resonance, the combined amyloid and fibrosis extent displayed a modest correlation with extracellular volume (r=0.661, P=0.001). The combined amyloid and fibrosis extent correlated with high-sensitivity troponin T (P=0.035) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (P=0.002) serum levels. CONCLUSIONS: Extracellular spaces in cardiac amyloidosis are enlarged to a similar extent by amyloid deposits and fibrotic tissue. Their combination can better explain the increased extracellular volume at cardiac magnetic resonance and circulating biomarkers than amyloid extent alone.
2021
Pucci, A.; Aimo, A.; Musetti, V.; Barison, A.; Vergaro, G.; Genovesi, D.; Giorgetti, A.; Masotti, S.; Arzilli, C.; Prontera, C.; Pastormerlo, L. E.; Coceani, M. A.; Ciardetti, M.; Martini, N.; Palmieri, C.; Passino, C.; Rapezzi, C.; Emdin, M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2472829
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