Diabetes mellitus (DM), a group of diseases characterized by defective glucose metabolism, is the most widespread metabolic disorder affecting over 400 million adults worldwide. This pathological condition has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of central encephalopathies and peripheral neuropathies. In further support of this notion, recent epidemiological evidence suggests a link between DM and Parkinson’s disease (PD), with hyperglycemia emerging as one of the culprits in neurodegeneration involving the nigrostriatal pathway, the neuroanatomical substrate of the motor symptoms affecting parkinsonian patients. Indeed, dopaminergic neurons located in the mesencephalic substantia nigra appear to be particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress and degeneration, likely because of their intrinsic susceptibility to mitochondrial dysfunction, which may represent a direct consequence of hyperglycemia and hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. Other pathological pathways induced by increased intracellular glucose levels, including the polyol and the hexosamine pathway as well as the formation of advanced glycation end-products, may all play a pivotal role in mediating the detrimental effects of hyperglycemia on nigral dopaminergic neurons. In this review article, we will examine the epidemiological as well as the molecular and cellular clues supporting the potential susceptibility of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons to hyperglycemia.

Diabetes, a contemporary risk for Parkinson’s disease: Epidemiological and cellular evidences

Sergi D.
Co-primo
;
2019

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus (DM), a group of diseases characterized by defective glucose metabolism, is the most widespread metabolic disorder affecting over 400 million adults worldwide. This pathological condition has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of central encephalopathies and peripheral neuropathies. In further support of this notion, recent epidemiological evidence suggests a link between DM and Parkinson’s disease (PD), with hyperglycemia emerging as one of the culprits in neurodegeneration involving the nigrostriatal pathway, the neuroanatomical substrate of the motor symptoms affecting parkinsonian patients. Indeed, dopaminergic neurons located in the mesencephalic substantia nigra appear to be particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress and degeneration, likely because of their intrinsic susceptibility to mitochondrial dysfunction, which may represent a direct consequence of hyperglycemia and hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. Other pathological pathways induced by increased intracellular glucose levels, including the polyol and the hexosamine pathway as well as the formation of advanced glycation end-products, may all play a pivotal role in mediating the detrimental effects of hyperglycemia on nigral dopaminergic neurons. In this review article, we will examine the epidemiological as well as the molecular and cellular clues supporting the potential susceptibility of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons to hyperglycemia.
2019
Sergi, D.; Renaud, J.; Simola, N.; Martinoli, M. -G.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2459678
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