Our previous results demonstrated that a prodrug obtained by the conjugation of the antiretroviral drug zidovudine (AZT) with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) represents a potential carrier for AZT in the central nervous system, thus possibly increasing AZT efficiency as an anti-HIV drug. Based on these results and in order to enhance AZT brain targeting, the present study focuses on solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) as a carrier system for the nasal administration of UDCA−AZT prodrug. SLMs were produced by the hot emulsion technique, using tristearin and stearic acid as lipidic carriers, whose mean diameters were 16 and 7 μm, respectively. SLMs were of spherical shape, and their prodrug loading was 0.57 ± 0.03% (w/w, tristearin based) and 1.84 ± 0.02% (w/w, stearic acid based). The tristearin SLMs were able to control the prodrug release, whereas the stearic acid SLMs induced a significant increase of the dissolution rate of the free prodrug. The free prodrug was rapidly hydrolyzed in rat liver homogenates with a half-life of 2.7 ± 0.14 min (process completed within 30 min). The tristearin SLMs markedly enhanced the stability of the prodrug (75% of the prodrug still present after 30 min), whereas the stabilization effect of the stearic acid SLMs was lower (14% of the prodrug still present after 30 min). No AZT and UDCA−AZT were detected in the rat cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after an intravenous prodrug administration (200 μg). Conversely, the nasal administration of stearic acid based SLMs induced the uptake of the prodrug in the CSF, demonstrating the existence of a direct nose−CNS pathway. In the presence of chitosan, the CSF prodrug uptake increased six times, up to 1.5 μg/mL within 150 min after nasal administration. The loaded SLMs appear therefore as a promising nasal formulation for selective zidovudine brain uptake.

Brain uptake of a Zidovudine prodrug after nasal administration of solid lipid microparticles

DALPIAZ, Alessandro;FERRARO, Luca Nicola;PERRONE, Daniela;PAVAN, Barbara;SCALIA, Santo
2014

Abstract

Our previous results demonstrated that a prodrug obtained by the conjugation of the antiretroviral drug zidovudine (AZT) with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) represents a potential carrier for AZT in the central nervous system, thus possibly increasing AZT efficiency as an anti-HIV drug. Based on these results and in order to enhance AZT brain targeting, the present study focuses on solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) as a carrier system for the nasal administration of UDCA−AZT prodrug. SLMs were produced by the hot emulsion technique, using tristearin and stearic acid as lipidic carriers, whose mean diameters were 16 and 7 μm, respectively. SLMs were of spherical shape, and their prodrug loading was 0.57 ± 0.03% (w/w, tristearin based) and 1.84 ± 0.02% (w/w, stearic acid based). The tristearin SLMs were able to control the prodrug release, whereas the stearic acid SLMs induced a significant increase of the dissolution rate of the free prodrug. The free prodrug was rapidly hydrolyzed in rat liver homogenates with a half-life of 2.7 ± 0.14 min (process completed within 30 min). The tristearin SLMs markedly enhanced the stability of the prodrug (75% of the prodrug still present after 30 min), whereas the stabilization effect of the stearic acid SLMs was lower (14% of the prodrug still present after 30 min). No AZT and UDCA−AZT were detected in the rat cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after an intravenous prodrug administration (200 μg). Conversely, the nasal administration of stearic acid based SLMs induced the uptake of the prodrug in the CSF, demonstrating the existence of a direct nose−CNS pathway. In the presence of chitosan, the CSF prodrug uptake increased six times, up to 1.5 μg/mL within 150 min after nasal administration. The loaded SLMs appear therefore as a promising nasal formulation for selective zidovudine brain uptake.
2014
Dalpiaz, Alessandro; Ferraro, Luca Nicola; Perrone, Daniela; Leo, E.; Iannuccelli, V.; Pavan, Barbara; Paganetto, G.; Beggiato, S.; Scalia, Santo
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/1967012
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