We compared reasoners' inferences from conditionals based on possibilities in the present or the past (e.g., 'If Linda had been in Dublin then Cathy would have been in Galway') with their inferences based on facts in the present or the past (e.g., 'If Linda was in Dublin then Cathy was in Galway'). We propose that people construct a richer representation of conditionals that deal with possibilities rather than facts: Their models make explicit not only the suppositional case, in which Linda is in Dublin and Cathy is in Galway, but also the presupposed case, in which Linda is not in Dublin and Cathy is not in Galway. We report the results of four experiments that corroborate this model theory. The experiments show that reasoners make more inferences from conditionals based on possibilities rather than on facts when the inferences depend on the presupposed case. The results also show that reasoners generate different situations to verify and falsify conditionals based on possibilities and facts.

Deductive reasoning with factual, possible, and counterfactual conditionals

TASSO, Alessandra
1999

Abstract

We compared reasoners' inferences from conditionals based on possibilities in the present or the past (e.g., 'If Linda had been in Dublin then Cathy would have been in Galway') with their inferences based on facts in the present or the past (e.g., 'If Linda was in Dublin then Cathy was in Galway'). We propose that people construct a richer representation of conditionals that deal with possibilities rather than facts: Their models make explicit not only the suppositional case, in which Linda is in Dublin and Cathy is in Galway, but also the presupposed case, in which Linda is not in Dublin and Cathy is not in Galway. We report the results of four experiments that corroborate this model theory. The experiments show that reasoners make more inferences from conditionals based on possibilities rather than on facts when the inferences depend on the presupposed case. The results also show that reasoners generate different situations to verify and falsify conditionals based on possibilities and facts.
1999
Byrne, R. M. J.; Tasso, Alessandra
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in SFERA sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/1383913
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 109
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 79
social impact